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The fiber and yarn sector is an important part of the textile industry. To stay in the environment of competition, this sector is constantly looking for innovative items and solutions to meet the changing trend and industry norms (Payne, 2015). The wave of changing trends and standards is primarily towards sustainability, recycling ability, waste reduction, efficient production and cycled economy. Now, these norms and standards are piercing into trade economics as governments have started to interfere to achieve sustainability promises. The goodness of textiles is measured by their knitting technology (Rana et al, 2015). The fabrics of the future can take their origins from innovative yarns. There are various technological trends in the fabrics and yarns, one being
Bionics- Bionic yarns have been inspired by spiders, bionics is a phenomenon that is inspired by nature and transfers the natural to the technical phenomenon to make it reproducible. An example of this Velcro fastener. In terms of yarn, nature has a lot to offer which the technology can copy and can benefit all (Teodorescu, 2014). Cobweb is spun from the fibers which are the most resilient on earth today as the thread is much elastic than rubber, still many times stronger than steel being very thin. The main advantage is that they are biodegradable, are not inflammatory, have antibacterial properties, and do inhibit allergies. Such yarn is very revolutionary for the human as so many qualities are there with no apparent disadvantage or compromise. This makes the yarn very interesting and it needs to be produced industrially as the idea of producing such yarn through spider farms has been proved uneconomical. Though a company from Munich called Amsilk has found a solution and it calls the product as Biosteel (Teodorescu, 2014). Industrially such a yarn has been only produced in microparticles and not in threads thus till now they are used in cosmetics. The spider silk provides moisture and a silky-soft feel. Though R & D is going on other applications and thread-making (Kochan, 2012). Another company Bold Threads is working on artificial spider threads and plans to offer clothes made of it.
The Spider’s web yarn in bulk quantity can be taken for the ensemble as after the apocalypse, the person wants no such wearing as to which can cause him any kind of allergy or itching, also it resists fire and will be durable in such a situation.
Raw Material floating on the Sea- The thrown material is sometimes a raw material for valuable for new things. New yarns can be made out of it like the ocean plastics, remnants of duck’s nest made from moss or other material are some of the useful raw materials that companies are turning towards. Giants like Nike and H & M are working on such waste materials to produce goods. Adidas and Nike are working on the pile of plastic garbage to use them for their products as the pile are very problematic for the oceans building gyres of it (Payne, 2015).
Such plastic wastes can be found and if the man knows how to recycle them to make a shoe for him and use remnants of floating nests of birds which are very fluffy could be used to make an overcoat for winters.
Today sustainability is a concern of utmost importance and is the only issue that is binding most of the governments in today's world. It is significant for the textile and garment industry to sustain the R & D in sustainability issues because now the governments have started to interfere in those industries which are producing unsustainable materials and exhaustive energies, the textile industry is one such industry using extensive energy and producing wastage and chemicals (Wang, 2018). The industry is recycled centric but which is not enough. There needs to be a greater work in water use, savings, durability, and waste management and reduce wastage, carbon emissions.
The textile industry is one of the largest reasons for environmental degradation, just second to the oil industry. It is responsible for 10 % of the greenhouse emissions and 20 % of wastewater production (Payne, 2015). Thus there is a drastic need for the textile industry to change their approach to manufacturing and procurement of raw materials which must be sustainable and do not use much water and chemical fertilizers. On the other hand, companies are innovations to develop such fibers and yarns which are sustainable like the spider’s web fiber (Payne, 2015). Two primary and important sustainability initiatives are-
Circular economy of fashion- The current fashion industry runs on a linear system of fashion with a very short life span to make clothing a fast-moving consumer good. Textiles are sourced, produced, and thrown away, the problem is an artificial yarn can take 200 years to degrade naturally (Wang, 2018), thus this economic structure is very unhealthy for nature and needs to be made circular. Then the recycling and reuse economy has gained momentum and attraction to a considerable level because making a circular economy in fashion can drastically reduce the environmental footprint of the fashion industry. However, a perfectly closed-loop or circular economy is not possible as once the items are no longer be repurposed or recycled, they will end up in a landfill like in a linear economy (Rana et al, 2015). This economic structure of recycling and reuse which includes second-hand clothing is called a circular economy of fashion. In this, every process is made to be sustainable using biodegradable materials, raw materials, and efficient manufacturing and logistics.
Closed-Loop System- Closed loop systems are one in which the products which are designed, manufactured, and used to circulate them into the society for as long as possible, making them more efficient and having maximum usability, minimum environmental footprint, efficient water use including all the industry. There were 17 million tones of textiles generated in 2017 in the USA and only 2.6 tones were recycled (Wang, 2018). It is very harmful to the land as well as the ocean system... Already 8 million tones of plastic end up in the ocean every year (Wang, 2018).
The material that he used for the ensemble is sustainable and do not harm nature and leave no carbon footprint as spider's web, creeper, climber, wolf's skin, birds nest and feathers, coconut, plastic, etc, all these things do not use water to grow or emit greenhouse gases thus sustainable. The ensemble could be made for a closed-loop by the time he finds a cotton cloth, and then he will be able to make a new overcoat for himself by filling the bird’s nest and feathers into that cotton.
A nuclear war on a mass scale would destroy most of the humans in the world and the remaining ones would strive to collect and live together in an environment that would be free of the fallout of nuclear explosions encompassing a small area. The people will search for one another and would want an outfit that can be made from the remnants after the war and easy to carry and wear without any bodily irritation as much as possible in the expedition to search other ones and live collectively.
The post-apocalyptic man named Adam aged 32 and will live eating fruits, meat from hunting, and nuts on the seacoast near which he is living, he is used to of making apparels out of plastic and wastage from the oceans and the lakes and will make an overcoat made out of the remnants of the bird's nest and feathers which are good insulators like the Icelandic eiderdown bird’s nest. The man will make an upper out of the bird’s nest remnants and will sew them with the help of a small thorn with the help of spider’s web yarn. It will save him from the environmental wear and tear he will be going to face during his expedition. His personal life goals are to establish a colony that is safe from any radiation and collective with the other survivors of war. His challenges are the animals from which he has to save himself and to make a boa which should be reliable enough for an expedition. He will have a good knowledge of science and physics which he will apply to survive. The ultimate goal of Adam is to return to the past life of which he was used to with the same facilities. The post-war society is thought to be a utopian society close to nature with sustainable facilities.
Apocalyptic motifs have a long history in literature in the western tradition since the book of revelation has been written and millenarian movements have been frequent in European history. It was spanning from the antinomian sects of the middle ages to radical movements related to politics till the late twentieth century. Human has always been fascinated with the concept of an end of the world and survival of few (Taangboonrithruthai et al, 2014).
Name- Adam Smith
Past profession- Science teacher
Aim- Food, safety, a house, a boat, grouping of all people alive
Challenges- Animals, diseases in the wild due to bacteria and viruses, safe drinking water.
Work done- Made an ensemble for him with some weapons, made a hut on a tree for a safe living till he goes on the expedition.
Ensemble- The man has made a weapon for himself with the help of a leftover car gear and shaft with leather belts to protect hands, and a jumping pole with a cloth at the top with oil to fire up for an emergency. He has made an overcoat made of the resin and remnants of duck's nest and feathers. He has protective gears out of the snake's skin and coconut shells. He is smart enough to make shoes out of plastic waste as sole and creeper and climber’s rope. The challenges are winter, animals, lack of water, and safe night. He has found carbon fiber of a car and used it as protective gear for his torso. He doubled the skin of the wolf he killed and ate and attached the skin with the shoes to make them long shoes. He used a spider's web and creeper as a thread to sew this entire ensemble.
Kochan , R. (2012). The foresight technologies for textile industry. Selected Problems of Industrial Product Quality.103-111.
Payne, A. (2015). Open-and closed-loop recycling of textile and apparel products. Handbook of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Textiles and Clothing. Pages 103-123
Rana, S., Pichandi, S., Moorthy, S. & Bhattarcharya, A. (2015). Carbon footprint of textile and clothing products. Handbook of Sustainable Apparel Production 7.141-166.
Tangboonritruthai, S., Oxenham, W., Cassill, N. & Parrish, E. (2014). The integration of technology and management in the competitiveness of the united states short staple yarn manufacturing industry. Journal of Textiles 2014 179387, 10.
Tarai, S. & Shaileja, K. (2020). Consumer perception towards sale of second-hand clothes in the localities of odisha, state of india. Journal of Textile Engineering & Fashion Technology 6(4). 159-162.
Teodorescu, M. (2014). Applied biomimetics: a new fresh look of textiles. Journal of Textiles 2014. 9.
Wang, S. (2018). Brief analysis on closed-loop ecosystem of textile and clothing recycling. IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science 186(4).
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