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The given scenario of SCTP transmission shows that "TSN 149" is being lost during transmission process. So,
So, ACK 148 and ACK 152 will be maintained in packet as shown below:
The voice over LTE which is commonly called VoLTE is commonly used to deliver the voice services by maintaining the data flow through the use of LTE channels. The MSSN (multimedia sub system network) is commonly used with IP for defining the followed processes and services of VoLTE. Any type of communication like file communication, video communication or voice communication can be maintained with VoLTE on real time bases. The legacy of CWN is mainly maintained for defining the communication in this service. Network operators can take the following advantages from this service:
The working process followed in VoLTE is pointed below:
The points showing the relationship "radio access network (RAN)" and "core network (CN)" are pointed under:
When IP network is being followed in place of GPRS approach, then, following benefits can be obtained:
The routing on user demand is mainly maintained by the AODV protocol. The required route to reach the destination node is being searched by this protocol in the routing table. As any routing table is not provided, so, following steps will be followed by this AODV protocol for routing data packet to node B from the node Q:
The provided scenario is showing the "Berkeley Snoop Protocol" is being used for maintaining the required communication among the base station BS and mobile host MH. The packet sequence of P1 to P5 is being transferred by the base station BS. The provided scenario also shows that P2 and P3 packets are being dropped but packet number 4 is being reached to mobile host. In this case, duplicate acknowledgement is being send for the missing packets. In the same time, packet 5 is also transmitted by the BS base station. So, following sequence will be maintained for transmitting all packets from BS to MH:
When DUPACK is being received by BS, then, handling of this situation can be done in following manner:
The points showing BS reactions when it receives any DUPACK are supplied below:
Yes, it is very important that DUPACK retransmitted and its supporting reasons are:
The dependency on sender is being maintained by TCP so that lost packets can be again retransmitted. The packets which bare being received by the receiver, all of them are being acknowledged. The collection of all the received acknowledgements will be maintained. Before the time to transmit the required packets is completed and acknowledgement is not being received, then, retransmission is same time is again done by the sender. The RTO time of waiting is defined by the base station, then host will perform transmission of packets again by following the defined sequences of processes. But in case of time up for the packet transmission is occurred, then, partial ACK will be provided to the base station from the sender side. When cached packets are received on the BS, then, these packets will be provided to host station in the defined RTO time and PACK will be provided. When duplicate acknowledgement is forwarded to the host station then TCP is being required for performing the retransmission of lost packets. The TCP will trigger the retransmission of duplicate packets for which the DUPACK is being received. The duplicate ACK is being redirected on the receiver cache by the TCP.
The packet loss is mainly identified by the maintained sequence numbers for data packets, so that, the data replication and rearrangement can be done. The wireless link is being used by the base station for maintaining the transportation connections. The sequence numbers will also help in making adjustments' for the packets, duplicate packets are removed, lost packets can be retransmitted and maintaining control on the transmitted packets. The consistent states of the transferred packets with DUPACK can be maintained with sequence numbers. The excessive congestions in retransmission of TCP can be maintained with sequence number. The quick retransmission will also be possible with maintaining the sequence numbers.
The cell C1, C2 and C3 are being placed on the common road. When, the call from first C1 cell is in progress, then, the identical channel will be show busy state for remaining C2 and C3 cell. The busy state will be shown to remaining cells C2 and C3. The "Handover" and "Handoff " concepts are mainly used to handle the provided condition. These "Handover" and "Handoff " concepts will help in maintaining the movement from C1 to C2. All the sessions and calls for defining the movement from C1 to C2 or C3 will be defined by the handover process. The change in session will also be maintained by it. As the call from C1 is already in progress then this call will be handover to C2 and any termination of call is not occurred. The C1 will receive the signals from C2 base station will carry out this movement with handoff for handling this occurred condition.
When C1 is not having the free stations and two calls call 1 and call 2 are maintained by C1 from C3, then, movement to C2 will be carried out. The handover process can easily manage this condition. The new call is being connected with C3and C2 will maintain both the calls from C1. The channel of C3 will be used by C2. Now a different channel will be developed so that any collision among the calls can be avoided.
The handoff procedure followed for maintaining progress of C1 through C2 and C3 is pointed below:
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