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Lifespan Approach to Health and Wellness for Nursing



Health promotion and illness prevention.

Facilitating the intervention.


Reference list.

Introduction to Bree and The Birthday Invitations Scenario Analysis

Health promotion and illness prevention help in increasing the general knowledge about the disease and preventive measure that could be taken by the patient or any other person so that quality of life of the diseased individual could be improved (Peckham et al., 2017). In the case of Bree, she was suffering from diabetes and is not feeling good with the behaviour which was showcased to her by other people in her surroundings. So, therefore, in this essay, the focus is laid on the intervention that could help the problem of Bree and thus would make her feel more accepted and comfortable.

Health Promotion and Illness Prevention

Health promotion is an approach which focuses on the improvement of the health of the people living in the society and the communities. It can also be referred to as a process which enables individuals to take control of their health so that their health could be enhanced. Ottawa Charter explained the steps by which the promotion of health could be done. The steps involve building healthy public strategies or policies, strengthening actions of the community, reorienting healthcare services, creating a supportive environment and developing personal skills (Duplaga et al., 2016). Whereas, illness prevention could be stated as a complimentary term for health promotion.Illness prevention mentions about avoiding illness or disease and their associated complications. It also includes the reduction of risk factors so that diseases do not progress any further. The primary step in disease prevention includes taking steps before the starting of disease. After that, the second step in this is to control the illness before it starts to shown clinical signs with the help of the screening process. The third step is taken to reduce the impact of illness when it has been developed so that its consequence would not affect the quality of life of the patient (Duplaga et al., 2016). Therefore, both these strategies work for enhancing the life quality of people so that there will not be an increase in the morbidity and mortality rates. However, a health promotion strategy is focused on the wellbeing of people whereas illness prevention focuses on efforts that could help in reducing the severity of diseases (Duplaga et al., 2016).

An intervention which could be provided to Bree for her condition is that she could be given education about her health condition and the diseases from which she is suffering. With that, she could also be given knowledge about the management of stress and emotional factors which could affect her health. Also, education could be provided to the people in her social surroundings so that they provide her with family, peer and community support (Iquize et al., 2017; Altundag&Bayat, 2016). Education plays a vital role in treating Diabetes Mellitus and also helps in managing it. It is a chronic illness and thus it heavily depends on patient awareness and accountability. It generally requires patients to maintain their blood sugar level. With that, education also helps patients to regulate their emotion in a better way so that it would not cause any mental distress. Education of family members, peers and community people will facilitate them in understanding the condition of the patient and thus would create a sensitive environment for the patient (Iquize et al., 2017; Altundag, &Bayat, 2016). Therefore, by providing them with education intervention, disease management could be performed. This intervention will also ensure the wellbeing of Bree so that her health promotion could be done. With that, it will also help her in illness prevention so that she does not experience severe complications due to Diabetes Mellitus (Duplaga et al., 2016).

The model of health which was identified in the previous assessment was the biopsychosocial model. The biopsychosocial model gives equiprimacy to psychological, social and biological determinants of health. This model is made so that chronic illnesses could be studied and their condition could be managed. In the case of Bree, it is important to look at various aspects so that her problem could be solved. Therefore, the main domains which would be recognized via the proposed intervention would be biological, psychological and social. The biological domain would include her illness that is diabetes mellitus. It would further consist of glucose levels, lipids or blood pressure. The psychological domain would comprise distress that is caused by diabetes and the social domain would include lack of support from community people and school staff members (Kalra et al., 2018).

Facilitating the Intervention

The people who will be involved in the educational intervention would be Bree, her teacher, her classmates and the parents of the classmates. Patient education in Diabetes Mellitus is an effective part of the treatment. Those patients who are not aware of their health condition are most likely to develop complications from the disease. By gaining the education, they have a sense of having social support that will in turn improve their psychosocial and mental wellbeing and would also favour towards controlling diabetes. With that, the patient would also gain knowledge about maintaining their blood sugar level so that their overall health could be improved. Patient education would moreover increase self-management practices (Świątoniowska, 2019). Thus, by educating Bree, she would take control of her situation and also can handle her emotions and psychosocial wellbeing. Bree’s teacher could also be given information and education about the disease. The main reason behind this would be that there will be an increase in the level of knowledge about diabetes and thus it would give confidence to the teacher for taking care for Bree (Pansier& Schulz, 2015). Educating Bree’s peer and their parents would most likely to bridge the gap between community and Bree. It would provide Bree with social and mental support that she needed to manage and control her disease. Her peer and their parents could make her feel more comfortable and accepted. Thus, she would not feel secluded and she could also share her experience with people about her disease (Simmons et al., 2013).

The educational intervention needs to be given to Bree routinely so that her social and emotional needs are supported. By doing this, she would also be aware of her disease status and new management techniques that she could use to manage her condition with her age. Therefore, long-term intervention could be given to her so that she comes to know new advancements in her illness and that she could manage herself (Streisand & Monaghan, 2014). The main factors for continuing the educational intervention is that it would help Bree to manage psychological challenges that she might face from her disease. Education would also help her in taking a balanced diet and correct nutrition that would keep her diabetes and glycemic control in check. Education will also promote involving in physical exercise so that health status could be maintained. It will also help in adjusting to disease and handling stress which is associated with it (Streisand & Monaghan, 2014). To determine the intervention is effective, blood sugar levels of the patient could be check and it could also be seen that there are no complications related to diabetes. Bree’s mental and emotional wellbeing could also be checked and it can be noted that she is doing her self-management or not (Nazar et al., 2015).

Conclusion on Bree and The Birthday Invitations Scenario Analysis

In the case study of Bree, it can be said that she could be helped by health promotion and illness prevention strategies. She could be provided help via educational intervention where she could be given knowledge about her condition and learn about, managing her emotional and social wellbeing. She could be helped in multiple domains with the help of the biopsychosocial model. The domains would be biological, psychological and social. Her blood sugar level in addition to her mental wellbeing could be supported by the help of family member and community people. This intervention could also involve her teacher, peers and their parents. The educational intervention could be given her for the long term so that her psychological challenges could be maintained. Intervention could be assessed by looking at health and mental status.

Reference List for Bree and The Birthday Invitations Scenario Analysis

Altundag, S., &Bayat, M. (2016). Peer interaction and group education for adaptation to disease in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences32(4), 1010–1014. https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.324.9809

Duplaga, M., Grysztar, M., Rodzinka, M., &Kopec, A. (2016). Scoping review of health promotion and disease prevention interventions addressed to elderly people. BMC Health Services Research16(5), 278.https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1521-4

Iquize, R. C. C., Theodoro, F. C. E. T., Carvalho, K. A., Oliveira, M. D. A., Barros, J. D. F., & Silva, A. R. D. (2017). Educational practices in diabetic patient and perspective of health professional: A systematic review. Brazilian Journal of Nephrology39(2), 196-204.https://doi.org/10.5935/0101-2800.20170034 

Kalra, S., Baruah, M. P., &Sahay, R. (2018).Salutogenesis in Type 2 Diabetes Care: A biopsychosocial perspective. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism22(1), 169–172. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijem.IJEM_224_17

Nazar, C. M., Bojerenu, M. M., Safdar, M., &Marwat, J. (2015).Effectiveness of diabetes education and awareness of diabetes mellitus in combating diabetes in the United Kingdom; a literature review.Journal of Nephropharmacology5(2), 110–115.

Pansier, B., & Schulz, P. J. (2015). School-based diabetes interventions and their outcomes: A systematic literature review. Journal of Public Health Research4(1), 467. https://doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2015.467

Peckham, S., Hann, A., Kendall, S., &Gillam, S. (2017). Health promotion and disease prevention in general practice and primary care: A scoping study. Primary Health Care Research & Development18(6), 529-540. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1463423617000494

Simmons, D., Bunn, C., Cohn, S., &Graffy, J. (2013). What is the idea behind peer-to-peer support in diabetes?. Diabetes Management3(1), 61.

Streisand, R., & Monaghan, M. (2014). Young children with type 1 diabetes: Challenges, research, and future directions. Current Diabetes Reports14(9), 520. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11892-014-0520-2

Świątoniowska, N., Sarzyńska, K., Szymańska-Chabowska, A., &Jankowska-Polańska, B. (2019).The role of education in type 2 diabetes treatment. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice151, 237-246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2019.04.004

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